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Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Biography
Born – 27 June 1838
Father- Yadav Chandra Chattopadhyay
Died – 8 April 1894
Work – Writer, Poet, Novelist
Birth Place – Naihati, Bengal
Language – Bangla, English
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, also known as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, is considered one of the great novelists and poets of India. He is also famous as the author of Vande Mataram, the national song of India.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was born on June 27, 1838 in Kantalpara village of 24 Parganas district of Bengal. He belonged to a family of Brahmins. The word ‘Bankim Chandra’ in Bengali means ‘Moon on the second day of the bright fortnight’. Bankim Chandra’s father Yadav Chandra Chattopadhyay was in government service. After his birth he was posted as Deputy Collector in Midnapore.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s early education took place in Midnapore. He was a brilliant student. After his early education in Midnapore, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee joined Mohsin College in Hooghly and studied there for six years. Apart from his textbooks, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay used to read other books in his spare time. He was very interested in the study of Sanskrit. His study of Sanskrit made him stand in good stead. Later, when he wrote books in Bengali, his knowledge of Sanskrit helped him a lot.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee joined the Presidency College, Calcutta in 1856. In 1857, there was a strong rebellion against the rule of the East India Company, but Bankim Chandra Chatterjee continued his studies and B.A. Passed the examination in 1859. The Lieutenant Governor of Calcutta appointed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee as Deputy Collector in the same year. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee remained in government service for thirty-two years and retired in 1891. He was a very conscientious worker.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was married only at the age of eleven. At that time his wife was only five years old. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was only twenty two years old when his wife died. After some time he got married again. His second wife was Rajalakshmi Devi. He had three daughters but no son.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee started his literary career as a writer of poetry. Then he turned to fantasy. Durgeshanandini, his first Bengali romance, was published in 1865. His famous novels include Kapalkundala (1866), Mrinalini (1869), Vishbriksha (1873), Chandrasekhar (1877), Rajani (1877), Rajasimha (1881), and Devi Choudhurani. 1884).
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s most famous novel was Anand Math (1882). Anand Math had the song “Vande Mataram”, which was later adopted as the national anthem.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wanted to bring about cultural revival of Bengal by stimulating the intellect of Bengali speaking people through literary campaign. Keeping this objective in mind, he brought out a monthly magazine called Bangadarshan in 1872.
Bankim Chatterjee was a brilliant storyteller and a master of romance. No Bengali writer before or since Chatterjee has enjoyed such spontaneous and universal popularity. His novels have been translated into almost all the major languages of India. He died on April 8, 1894.
Literary career of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Chattopadhyay’s early publications were in Ishwar Chandra Gupta’s weekly newspaper Sangbad Prabhakar. He began his literary career as a writer of poetry before turning to fiction. His first effort was a novel in Bengali submitted for a declared award. He did not live and the novelette was never published. His first novel to appear in print was the English novel Rajmohan’s Wife. Durgeshanandini, his first Bengali romance and first novel in Bengali, was published in 1865. One of Chattopadhyay’s many novels that deserves to be called historical fiction is Rajasimha (1881, rewritten and expanded 1893). Anandamath (The Abbey of Bliss, 1882) is a political novel depicting a sanyasi (Hindu ascetic) army fighting a British army. The book calls for the rise of Indian nationalism. The novel was also the source of the song Vande Mataram (I worship my motherland because she is actually my mother), which was set to music by Rabindranath Tagore, which was taken up by many Indian nationalists, and is now part of India. is the national anthem. The plot of the novel is loosely based on the Saints rebellion. He envisioned untrained ascetic soldiers and defeated the highly experienced British army; Ultimately, however, he accepted that the British could not be defeated. The novel first appeared in serial form in Bangadarshan, the literary magazine founded by Chattopadhyay in 1872. Vande Mataram became prominent during the Swadeshi movement, which began with Lord Curzon’s attempt to divide Bengal into a Hindu-majority West and a Muslim-majority East. Drawing from the Shakti tradition of Bengali Hindus, Chattopadhyay composed the song Bharat Mata, known as Bharat Mata, which gave the song a Hindu tone.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee on a 1969 postage stamp of India Bankim was particularly influenced by the historical Gaudiya Vaishnava cultural rise of the 14th and 15th centuries in Bengal. Chattopadhyay’s commentary on the Bhagavad Gita was published eight years after his death and included his commentaries up to the 19th verse of Adhyay 4. In a lengthy essay on Samkhya philosophy, he argues that the overwhelming majority of religious beliefs in India have a central philosophical basis. Including Buddhism, is rooted in the philosophy of Samkhya.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was highly educated and influenced by oriental thoughts and ideas. In contrast, Ramakrishna did not take formal education. Nevertheless, they had a cordial relationship. Once, playing on the meaning of Bankim (Bent a Little), Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa asked him what it was that made him hooked. Bankim Chandra jokingly replied that it was a kick in the shoes of the Englishman as he was a well-known critic of the British Government.
Bibliography of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Books
Durgeshnandini (March 1865), Kapalkundala (1866), Mrinalini (1869), Vishabriksha (Venom Tree 1873), Indira (1873, revised 1893) Jugalanguria (1874) Radharani (1876, enlarged 1893) Chandrasekhar (1875) Kamalakanta Daptar (Kamalakanta) From the desk of, 1875) Rajani(1877) Krishnakantar Uyil (Krishnakanta’s will, 1878) Rajasimha (1882) Anandamath (1882), Devi Choudhurani (1884), Kamalakanta (1885), Sitaram (March 1887), Muchiram Gurer biography (Muchiram Gur’s life)
Religious Commentaries of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Krishna Charitra (The Life of Krishna, 1886), Dharmatattva (Principles of Religion, 1888), Devatattva (Theory of the Divinity, published posthumously), Shrimadgavad Gita, A Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita (1902 – published posthumously)
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Poems
Lalita O Manas (1858)
Essays of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Lok Rahasya (Essays on Society, 1874, Expanded 1888) Bijan Rahasya (Essay on Science, 1875) Vichitra Prabandha (Mixed Essays), Volume 1 (1876) and Volume 2 (1892) Samay (Similarity, 1879)
5 important things related to Bankim Chandra
Bankim Chandra was the first Indian to obtain a BA degree in 1857 from the famous Presidency College of Bengal. In 1869 he obtained a law degree. After completion of education, he became deputy magistrate. Retired from government service in 1891. The first published work of Bankim Chandra was ‘Rajmohan’s Wife’. It was composed in English. His first published Bengali work ‘Durgeshanandini’ was published in 1865. It was a romantic composition. In April 1872, he started bringing out a magazine named ‘Bangdarshan’. In this, raising serious literary-social and cultural issues, the direction of his literary life was decided.
He wrote the political novel ‘Anandamath’ in 1882 on the Sanyavasi rebellion of 1773 in North Bengal. Infused with the spirit of patriotism, the story of this work is inspired by the incident of revolt of the Sanyasis against the British and the local Muslim king in Purnia, Danapur and Tirhut. The song ‘Vande Mataram’ was included in this novel7. Although he had written Vande Mataram in the form of a poem many years before this, but it was also made a part of the ‘Anandmath’ novels later.
Seeing the song ‘Vande Mataram’ became a symbol of nationalism. In 1894, 12 years after the death of Bankim Chandra, revolutionary Bipin Chandra Pal started bringing out a political magazine named ‘Vande Mataram’. Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore also composed the tune for this song. Lala Lajpat Rai also brought out a magazine with the same name.
In 1937, the Indian National Congress accepted the first two verses of this song as the national anthem. After independence, on January 24, 1950, Rajendra Prasad announced to give Vande Mataram the status of national song. In 1952, Hemen Gupta also made a film based on this novel named ‘Anand Math’.
Apart from this, Bankim Chandra’s ‘Kapalkundala’, ‘Mrinalini’, ‘Raj Singh’, ‘Vishvriksha’, ‘Krishnakanta’s Testament’, ‘Sitaram’, ‘Radharani’, ‘Rajni’ and ‘Indira’ are his other major works. Sitaram (1886) is the last novel by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.